At 2 months, what changes will occur in the articular cartilage of both her knees as a result of her current weightbearing regimen? Functions of hyaline articular cartilage. Cartilage: The three types of cartilage There are three types of cartilage: Hyaline - most common, found in the ribs, nose, larynx, trachea. The cartilage is structurally divided into three zones, each with a unique cellular morphology and arrangement of the type II collagen fibers . Hyaline cartilage has a “glassy” appearance and can be found on many articular surfaces as well as cartilage that provides structural support. Cartilage is a resilient and smooth elastic tissue, a rubber-like padding that covers and protects the ends of long bones at the joints and nerves, and is a structural component of the rib cage, the ear, the nose, the bronchial tubes, the intervertebral discs, and many other body components.It is not as hard and rigid as bone, but it is much stiffer and much less flexible than muscle. Histology of articular cartilage zones. Its ability to undergo reversible deformation depends on its structural organization, including the specific arrangement of the matrix macromolecule … It can withstand compression forces, and yet it can bend. Note the sharp distinction between the bone underneath and the cartilage. 1. These slides are good examples of mature hyaline cartilage with its abundant matrix and spaces, lacunae, occupied by cells, … • Type II collagen orientation is parallel to joint • Has flattened chondrocytes, condensed collagen fibers, and sparse proteoglycans• Has the highest concentration of collagen and lowest concentration of proteoglycans  • only zone where articular cartilage progenitor cells have been found, • Type II collagen is perpendicular to joint and crosses tidemark;  has the highest concentration of proteoglycans • Round chondrocytes arranged in columns, (OBQ13.100) Unphysiologic stress, however, can cause degeneration of the cartilaginous tissue as well as the subchondral bone and lead to osteoarthritis. Clin Sports Med 24(1):1–12, Mankin HJ (1982) The response of articular cartilage to mechanical injury. Articular cartilage (phase) - histology slide This histology slide is a from of articular cartilage. Functions of hyaline cartilage • Articular cartilage provides smooth surface for movement at joints • Though it is flexible, it provides support because of its firmness • Firmness of the cartilage keeps the lumen of trachea and bronchi patent 19. Hyaline cartilage histology. Articular cartilage is like hyaline cartilage except it lacks a perichiondrium which affects is ability to nourish, remove waste & repair Articular cartilage is made up of four basic biological layers or zones. Which of the following best describes the appearance of chondrocytes and orientation of collagen fibrils in the superficial zone of articular cartilage? Cartilage support of other tissues throughout the respiratory tract is also prominent. Objective. Articular cartilage pathology in the shoulder can present in many scenarios. Following an intra-articular fracture, in addition to mechanical disruption and cartilage necrosis, the following inflammatory cytokines are released, contributing to articular damage and the eventual development of post-traumatic arthritis: occurs when laceration travels through tidemark and penetrates subchondral bone, fibrocartilage produced by undifferentiated marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Tested Concept, Cartilage thickening in the left (ipsilateral) knee and no change in cartilage thickness in the right (contralateral) knee, Cartilage thinning in the left (ipsilateral) knee and no change in cartilage thickness in the right (contralateral) knee, Cartilage thinning in the left (ipsilateral) knee and increased cartilage thickness in the right (contralateral) knee, Increased cartilage thickness in both knees, (SAE13BS.51) Tested Concept, (OBQ06.210) I used to publish this type of article in regular basis in this site. An understanding of articular cartilage anatomy and physiology will enable the physician to more fully appreciate its function and necessity. Conclusions. Articular cartilage is composed of chondrocytes embedded within an exquisitely organized extracellular matrix of collagen and proteoglycans. Articular cartilage is the highly specialized connective tissue of diarthrodial joints. When evaluating articular cartilage, look for any surface damage that has occurred from normal wear and tear or surgical models. It also is different as it has type I and II collagen in its matrix whereas hyaline has only type II. Tested Concept, (OBQ12.203) This description of cartilage histology is a useful model for understanding how the stiffness of cartilage is created and maintained. Cartilage is a flexible connective tissue found in many parts of the body. Last reviewed: October 29, 2020. Histology Learning System [ Cartilage and Bone and Bone Histogenesis, articular cartilage] What is the most likely cause of this finding? Because of this, damaged cartilage heals poorly after injury. Is a precursor of bone. The perichondrium harbors the blood supply serving the cartilage and a small neural component. It is very important that your samples are dissected properly. hyalos = glass (Greek). Cartilage is a type of connective tissue that adapts to the pushing and pulling required for mechanical movement. Take up this short and easy cartilage quiz and see how much you know about the cartilage in our bodies. Hyaline cartilage histology. Provides a low-friction gliding surface. She undergoes open reduction and internal fixation and is kept non-weightbearing after surgery. 020 trachea connective tissue fibroblast plasma cell H&E Webscope Imagescope 040 trachea H&E Webscope Imagescope 040N hyaline cartilage 1.5um section H&E Webscope Imagescope 126 trachea, esophagus H&E Webscope Imagescope. is not surrounded by a perichondrium and is partly vascularised. Junqueira, p.157 26. The bulk of this tissue consists of an extracellular matrix composed of … While the intricate ultrastructure of articular cartilage is critical for proper function, these same properties create challenges for cartilage restoration. Articular cartilage serves a vital role in maintaining joint function by minimising friction and distributing load. The subset of 17 patients with bone bruises and combined articular cartilage pathology were 3.4 times more likely to be symptomatic at 6-year follow-up than those without articular cartilage pathology (P = 0.04). 1 Type II collagen is the most common type (95%), but other types have been identified (IV, VI, IX, X, and XI). Functions of hyaline articular cartilage. All the best! Articular cartilage serves as a load-bearing elastic material that is responsible for the frictionless movement of the surfaces of articulating joints. Tested Concept, Slight clearance of fit between the acetabular cup and the femoral head, Minimal surface roughness of the femoral head, Complete congruence of fit between the acetabular cup and the femoral head, Minimal surface roughness of the acetabular cup, (OBQ04.20) Articular cartilage is hyaline cartilage on the articular surfaces of bones, and lies inside the joint cavity of synovial joints, bathed in synovial fluid produced by the synovial membrane, which lines the walls of the cavity. Tested Concept, Decreased collagen content and decreased modulus of elasticity, Increased chondroitin sulfate concentration, (OBQ04.3) Thus, matrix also plays a role in recording a loading history of the articular cartilage. Articular Cartilage Structure and Function. It is the most common cartilage and is found on articular surfaces of bone, walls of … Articular cartilage serves a vital role in maintaining joint function by minimising friction and distributing load. The perichondrium consists of two layers: an outermost fibrous layer and the innermost chondrogenic cell layer. Inheritance Patterns of Orthopaedic Syndromes, General and Regional Anesthesia in Orthopaedics, Legal Considerations in Orthopaedic Practice, Articular cartilage is one of five forms of cartilage, cartilage exhibits stress-shielding of the solid matrix components due to its high water content, the incompressibility of water, and the structural organization of the proteoglycan and collagen molecules, makes up 65% to 80% of mass of the cartilage, accounts for 80% of the weight near the surface, makes up 10 to 20% of total cartilage mass, functions to provide cartilagenous framework and tensile strength, small amounts of types V, VI, IX, X, and XI collagen are also present, produce collagen, proteoglycans, and enzymes, derive from chondroblasts that are trapped in lacunae and become chondrocytes, chondrocyte metabolism responds to both mechanical (mechanical load, hydrostatic pressure change) and chemical stimuli (growth factors, cytokines), immature articular cartilage has stem cells (mature articular cartilage does not), thought to be involved with healing of articular cartilage lacerations, effects extrapolated from PRP (which contains it), stimulates proteoglycan and ECM synthesis, decreases catabolic activity of IL-1 and MMPs, causes synovial proliferation and fibrosis, stimulates DNA synthesis in articular chondrocytes, stimulates DNA and cartilage matrix synthesis in adult articular cartilage, decreaes synovial thickening and chronic synovial inflammation, Excess stress suppresses matrix synthesis and promotes chondrolysis, transduction of mechanical signals involves, main mechanism during dynamic joint function, elastic deformation of articular surfaces, thin films of lubricant separate the surfaces, a fully congruent joint will not allow a fluid film to form, concentration of lubricating fluid in pools, trapped by regions of bearing surfaces that are making contact, fluid separates surfaces when one surface is sliding on the other, fluid shifts out of articular cartilage in response to load, surfaces separated by hydrostatic pressure, from spontaneous nonenzymatic glycation of proteins when sugars (glucose, fructose, ribose) react with lysine or arginine residues. 2-layered fibrous sheet of dense CT. found places except where hyaline cartilage serves as articular cartilage, in contact with synovial fluid. No meniscus tear is identified, but the articular cartilage of the femoral condyles is noted to be twice as thick as normal values. This repair cartilage has diminished resiliency, stiffness, poor wear characteristics, and the predilection for arthritis. A 32-year-old runner sustains a trimalleolar left ankle fracture. Cartilage is a strong, flexible and semi-rigid supporting tissue. o Hyaline cartilage on its free surface, always covered with fibro-vascular membrane called perichondrium. Grossly normal articular cartilage from knees and ankles of a fresh cadaver were used in the study. In its fresh state, it is homogeneous and semi-transparent. It can bend a bit, but resists stretching. 1 Citations; 1.5k Downloads; Abstract. Hyaline cartilage is the most common of the three types of cartilage. rich in fibroblasts, undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells, blood vessels, nerve and lymphatic vessels. 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